Spinal manipulative therapy--SMT is known as a "hands-on" treatment of the spine, which includes both manipulation and mobilisation. In manual mobilisations, the therapist moves the patient's spine within their range of motion. They use slow, passive movements, starting with a small range and gradually increasing to a larger range of motion. Manipulation is a passive technique where the therapist applies a specifically directed manual impulse, or thrust, to a joint, at or near the end of the passive (or physiological) range of motion. This is often accompanied by an audible ‘crack'.Treatment was delivered by a variety of practitioners, including chiropractors, osteopaths,etc...
"High-quality evidence suggests that there is no clinically relevant difference between [spinal manipulative therapy (SMT)] and other interventions for reducing pain and improving function in patients with low back pain,” lead author Sidney M. Rubinstein, DC, MSc, and co-authors wrote in the report.
According to SPINE
There is evidence that SMT is neither superior nor inferior to other effective treatments for patients with chronic low-back pain. Read more